Saturday, March 14, 2020

Francis Bacons Classic Essay of Studies

Francis Bacons Classic Essay of Studies Francis Bacon, the first major English essayist, comments forcefully in Of Studies on the value of reading, writing,  and learning. Notice Bacons reliance on parallel structures (in particular, tricolons) throughout this concise, aphoristic  essay. Then, compare the essay to Samuel Johnsons treatment of the same theme more than a century later in On Studies. The Life of Francis Bacon Francis Bacon is considered a Renaissance man. He worked as a lawyer and scientist throughout his life (1561-1626.)  Bacons most valuable work surrounded philosophical and Aristotelian concepts that supported the scientific method. Bacon served as an Attorney General as well as Lord Chancellor of England and received his education from several universities including Trinity College and the University of Cambridge. Bacon has written over 50 essays beginning with Of in the title and following the concept, such as Of Truth, Of Atheism and Of Discourse. A few interesting facts about Bacon: Bacons uncle was the Lord Keeper for Queen Elizabeth I. He helped symbolize the approvals for key documents.He is known as the father of the scientific method which was influenced by his own Baconian method based on reason and observation.There are rumors that Bacon was mostly attracted to men, due to his late marriage in life, amongst other ​theories. Interpretations of Of Study Bacons essay expresses several comments in Of Studies that can be interpreted as the following: Studying is helpful for better understanding and provides a knowledge that develops experience, as well as  a character that grows.Reading provides delight and fun, ornament and showing off, and the ability for success.Bacon expanded upon different fields of study depending on ones goal; for example, to master clarity with language, study poetry. Of Studies Excerpt by Francis Bacon* Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humor of a scholar. They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning, by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men condemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books, else distilled books are like common distilled waters, flashy things. Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit: and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not. Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric a ble to contend. Abeunt studia in mores [Studies pass into and influence manners]. Nay, there is no stone or impediment in the wit but may be wrought out by fit studies; like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man’s wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the Schoolmen; for they are cymini sectores [splitters of hairs]. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers’ cases. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt. * Bacon published three editions of his essays (in 1597, 1612, and 1625) and the last two were marked by the addition of more essays. In many cases, they became expanded works from earlier editions. This is the best-known  version of the essay Of Studies, taken from the 1625 edition of  Essays or Counsels, Civil and Moral. Below, for the sake of comparison, is the version from the first edition (1597). Studies serve for pastimes, for ornaments, for abilities; their chief use for pastimes is in privateness and retiring; for ornaments in discourse; and for ability in judgment; for expert men can execute, but learned men are more fit to judge and censure. To spend too much time in them is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules is the humor of a scholar; they perfect nature, and are themselves perfected by experience; crafty men contemn them, wise men use them, simple men admire them; for they teach not their use, but that there is a wisdom without them and above them won by observation. Read not to contradict nor to believe, but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested: that is, some are to be read only in parts, others to be read but curiously, and some few to be read wholly with diligence and attention. Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready, and writing an exact man; therefore, if a man write little, he had need of a great memory; if he confer little, he had need of a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning to seem to know that he doth not know. Histories make wise men; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Burgertown Report Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Burgertown Report - Research Paper Example 1.2 312 Staff Cost 127664 0.74 94.952 Total Variable Cost 406.952 Marginal Contribution 260000 0.00 295.048 Fixed Cost 83 Depreciation Cost 25 Total Fixed Cost 108 Profit Before Interest 187.048 & Tax (PBIT) Interest 30 12% on Rs. 250000 Profit Before Tax (PBT) 157.048 c) Break Even Point Fixed Cost / Marginal Contribution 95170.96 Per Unit As you can see above that by producing 95,170.96 units the total sales realized would be equal to the total cost and thus the firm would be under Break Even situation meaning thereby that they would be a no profit no loss situation. d) Margin of Safety Actual Sales - Break Even Sales 164829 (in volumes) The Firm is in a better situation as the Margin of Safety is in a much strong position both in terms of quantity as shown above and in percentage as shown below : = Margin of Safety / Total Sales * 100 164829 / 260000 * 100 = 63.40% f) No. of units to be produced extra to gain additional profit of Rs. 50,000 PARTICULARS No. of Units Rate Value Sales x 2.90 2.90x Variable Cost Cost of Meals x 1.2 1.2x Staff Cost x 0.74 0.74x Total Variable Cost x 1.94x Marginal Contribution 0.96x (Sales - Total Variable Cost) Fixed Cost (Break up given below) 173000 Depreciation Cost 25000 Total Fixed Cost 198000 Profit Before Interest 237048 & Tax (PBIT) (Stated that the profits would be 50,000 additional than the earlier profits Also Marginal Contribution = Fixed Cost + Profit Before Interest & Tax Therefore no. of units produced to achieve an additional profit of Rs. 50,000 would be (237048+198000) /... Some limitations are typically due to the lack of precision in the numbers (e.g., what is the actual price, is it purchase price or life cycle price) and getting the precise figures for fixed and variable costs. Beyond that, it is limited by its total focus on the quantitative elements of a business plan and doesn't consider competitive reactions, customer needs, etc. http://books.google.co.in/booksct=result&id=958o8MoaYmMC&dq=high- low+method++variable+labour+cost+per+meal+and+the+annual+fixed+labour+cost.&ots=RibYVyeuS7&pg=PA133&lpg=PA133&sig=ACfU3U2ievG4GwJltFY_kQEL94YQYXEaKw&q=high-low+method++variable+labour+cost+per+meal+and+the+annual+fixed+labour+cost.+#PPA135,M1

Monday, February 10, 2020

Communication Satisfaction in the Virtual Workplace Coursework

Communication Satisfaction in the Virtual Workplace - Coursework Example Such innovations are capable of engaging, encouraging and supporting employees in their commitment to duty, which ultimately improves performance. By facilitating different approaches towards employees, innovations in employee benefits help the organization improve its overall competitive compensation strategy by enabling it to present itself uniquely from other organizations. Organizations can tie innovative benefits to specific jobs by primarily considering factors such as what the job description of each group of employees entails. Age is also a critical factor. This stems from the understanding that a certain innovative plan may be significant to one group and meaningless to another. For instance, fitness group membership would not be considered as a priority for field officers who traverse the width of the state while on duty as it would be for those who spend long hours behind computers. Similarly, young adults below 30 would consider mortgages and car loans or grants to be more significant than healthcare or retirement packages while in contrast, the elderly and less active would be tied to retirement benefits (Swanberg, McKechnie, & James, 2011). Critically assessing the effectiveness of equity-based versus creative-approach reward systems reveals that they both depend on an organization’s communication strategy as well as employees’ personal perceptions. Employees have a right to equity-based rewards since it is basically what they enter into a contract with employers to earn. The effectiveness of equity-based rewards is reflected in the manner in which they incorporate the interests of shareholders, organizations, and employees (Worldatwork, 2010). The key objectives of equity-based rewards include obtaining tax advantages and conserving resources while motivating optimum performance by employees.  

Thursday, January 30, 2020

European History Essay Example for Free

European History Essay When questioned in regards to the Enlightenment, an individual may give the general description that it was a time period ranging from the mid seventeenth to late eighteenth century that stressed the cultivation of philosophical, intellectual and cultural movements. However, they may not be aware of specific implications it had on former central powers such as the church. Although the scientific revolution was a stepping stone to the destabilization of the church, it was the enlightenment that ultimately removed the church from the central control of cultural and intellectual life. The scientific revolution is a time period in history roughly from 1500 to 1700 that is known as one where advances in European mathematical, political and scientific thought occurred. A â€Å"founding father† of the scientific revolution was a polish scientist by the name of Nicholas Copernicus, whose conclusion that it was the sun, not the earth that lies at the center of the solar system, was a direct contradiction to the church, which strongly believed the vice-versa or the Geo-Centric theory. (Merriman,290) It was this initiating step that led other scientists to further question and test traditional church beliefs. An example of this is Galileo Galilee and his creation of a telescope that would confirm the geocentric theory, although for which he was decreed a heretic and put under house arrest. (Merriman 296) In the â€Å"Crime of Galileo: Indictment and Abjuration of 1633† we can directly see Galilee’s theories being refuted by the church in the following quote: â€Å"The proposition that the sun is in the center of the world and immovable from its place is absurd, philosophically false, and formally heretical; because it is expressly contrary to Holy Scriptures†¦ The proposition that the earth is not the center of the world, nor immovable, but that it moves, and also with a diurnal action, is also absurd, philosophically false, and, theologically considered, at least erroneous in faith†¦.Therefore: We pronounce, judge, and declare, that you, the said Galileo . . . have rendered yourself vehemently suspected by this Holy Office of heresy.† (2) Here we can see the church counter-arguing Galilees theory by stating that it contradicts the Holy Scriptures, the biblical text that virtually controlled how individuals interpreted the world. Through Galileo’s thought’s individual’s became encouraged to see the world through measurable means such as experiments and evidence, as oppose to biblical texts that told otherwise. It was only after scientific discoveries such as the one above that philosophers started questioning the natural world. It was discoveries such as the one above that influenced great thinkers such as Isaac Newton, whose discoveries altered not only scientific thought but views about religion for decades to come. (Merriman,300) A Prussian philosopher by the name of Immanuel Kant, who lived from the mid seventeen hundreds to the early eighteen hundreds, was influenced by these ideas of empiricism and reason. In his 1784 publication â€Å"What is Enlightenment† Immanuel Kant writes: †Å"Sapere aude! (Dare to know) Have courage to use your own reason. If I have a book which understands for me, a pastor who has a conscience for me†¦I need not trouble myself. I need not think, if I can only pay others will easily undertake the irksome work for me.† (1-2) This can be interpreted that Kant is advising individuals to use their own sense of logic and to understand the natural world. Here, we can see that traditional church ideas are being pushed away for ones of a logical nature, hence a church that is surely losing its grip on the people of Europe. This idea of tradition church ideas being replaced can be further seen in Kant’s writing when he states: â€Å"The escape of men from their self-incurred tutelage chiefly in matters of religion because our rulers have no interest in playing guardian with respect to the arts and sciences and also because religious incompetence is not only the most harmful but also the most degrading of all.† (12) The interpretation that can be derived from this is that Kant believes that church officials have no concern for the development of man and wish for them to remain uneducated about the world in which they reside. Moreover, the argument can be made is that because the church’s negligence in accepting evolving scientific theories, people came to understand that the need to stray from church beliefs in order to grasp their own sense of understanding was unmistakable, therefore ultimately decreasing the churches once high standing in the lives of early Europeans. The scientific revolution, a corner stone for mankind, whose implications are being felt to this very day, was in addition responsible for the development of a time period known as the enlightenment. Characterized as a movement of philosophical, cultural, and intellectual gains, in addition the enlightenment was responsible for the decentralization of church power in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Scientist such as Nicholas Copernicus, Galileo Galilee, and Isaac Newton influenced individuals through their theories which stressed using empirical evidence and reasoning to define the world they dwell in. It was through these ideas that Europeans came to understand the Church’s denial to accept reason and empiricism, decentralizing the churches one’s great grasp over society. Works-Cited Kant, Immanuel. â€Å"What is Enlightenment?† Internet Modern History Sourcebook. 15 November 2012. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/kant-whatis.html. Merriman, John. A history of Modern Europe: From the Renaissance to the age of Napoleon. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. London: W.W.Norton and Company Inc., 2010. N. pag. Print. The Crime of Galileo: Indictment and Abjuration of 1633. . Web. 15 Nov. 2012. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1630galileo.asp.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Eastern Gray Kangaroo Management Plan :: essays research papers

The Macropus giganteus, otherwise known as the Eastern Gray Kangaroo, the Giant Gray Kangaroo, or the Tasmanian Forester, is found in the eastern parts of Australia and in Tasmania. A management plan for this species can prove to be difficult, as one has to take in to account the fact that having high kangaroo populations may have undesirable influences on ecological processes in response to habitat destruction or other environmental change that may pose a threat to biological diversity or other environmental values. Nonetheless, in this plan, I shall try to cover any concerns in an effort to show how to further benefit the Macropus giganteus. My first concern is the kangaroo’s habitat. Kangaroos can survive in very dense packs, called mobs, as has been shown by studies recording as many as 357 kangaroos per square kilometer living in a single nature reserve. However, they prefer to have more land available to them for grazing, as they feed primarily on shrubs and grasses that grow in the open fields. To address this, I would propose a solution that has proven effective in raising the populations in the past; deforestation. Kangaroos do not utilize the densely wooded areas in any way that would make them beneficial to keep. They have been known to live in the open woodlands, though. When heavily wooded areas are thinned or completely destroyed, this provides more grazing area for the kangaroo, allowing for a higher population carrying capacity. However, it must be stressed that some shade trees must be kept, as the kangaroos like to rest under them to cool off from the intense Australian sun. Another major concern is the killing of the kangaroo population by farmers. Farmers hunt the kangaroos because they feel that the kangaroo grazes on too much of its land, therefore being detrimental to the farm. A simple solution to this that benefits the kangaroo is to simply buy out the farms and convert the farmland into grasslands that the kangaroos can graze in freely. The farmer benefits from the buyout, and the kangaroo population can continue to increase. Another problem the Gray Kangaroo faces is being struck by cars. Roads often cut through the bush lands in Australian, often without any king of fence or barrier to keep wildlife from wandering onto the highway and being killed. Thousands of kangaroos are killed each year because of this. One solution is to fence off the highways that cut through kangaroo habitat.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Intercommunication

If was to buy the list I would sale contact method that I would use would be contacting them in person, although it would be time consuming and expensive, I would want them to see me and know that I am serious about business. I would be able to directly answer any questions that they might have and it is always good to put a face to someone wanting to do business. Cold calling assumes sales people will be successful If they can reach the right person In an organization. I do not think that cold calling should be used but It Is the only way that some can get through.Cold calling focuses on getting past the middle people. A person who calls Like this tries to let the buyer know why they should make a purchase decision right now. They can create a negative experience. I know that I do not Like when people call me and push me to buy something. Many people are so often hit with advertising messages from TV, newspapers, magazines and it is hard to get their attention. Direct mall can help build relationships between you and whomever you are trying to reach.It is more personal because you can say what you want and have time to put your thoughts together and express whatever it is you need to and is also cost efficient. Most consumers are receptive to direct mail. Yes, I consider sending these contacts unsolicited emails spam. Most of us get spam every day, ranging from a little to a lot, but if you have an e-mail account it is always there. It is frustrating when you open your business email and before you can respond to your customers or email your suppliers, you have spam. I feel that it is just a way for people to try to get you to buy into something, Spam is of no importance to me.

Monday, January 6, 2020

What Are the Principal Parts of Latin Verbs

When you learn a new Latin verb you generally learn an abbreviated form of the following four principal parts: the present, active, indicative, first person, singular,the present active infinitive,the perfect, active, indicative, first person, singular, andthe past participle (or perfect passive participle), singular, masculine. Taking as an example the first conjugation verb amo (love), you will see in the dictionary something like: amo, -are, -avi, -atus. This is an abbreviated form of the four principal parts: amo, amare, amavi, amatus. The four principal parts correspond with English forms: I love (or I am loving) [present, active, first person, singular],To love [present active infinitive],I have loved (or I loved) [perfect, active, first person, singular],Loved [past participle]. In English, however, you usually just learn something referred to as the verb, as in love. That doesnt mean English lacks principal parts—just that we tend to ignore them and if we learn them, we dont have to learn four: The present active indicative first person singular of love is love,the simple past tense and the past participle loved. If you learn the verb is love or to love you know to add the -d for the past. This makes it seem onerous to have to learn four forms for each Latin verb; however, even in English we sometimes face a similar challenge. It all depends on whether were dealing with what is called a strong verb or a weak one. Having four principal parts not so different from English if you insert the infinitive (to the verb) in the list of principal parts, andlook at a strong verb like ring rather than a weak verb like love. A strong verb in English changes the vowel to change the tense. I — A — U in the following example: Ring is the present,To ring is the present infinitive,Rang is the past, andRung is the past participle. A weak verb (like love) doesnt change the vowel. Why Should You Notice the Four Principal Parts? The four principal parts of the Latin verb give you all the information you need to conjugate the verb. Not all first principal parts end in -o. Some are in the third person, not first.The infinitive tells you which conjugation it is in. Drop the -re to locate the present stem.The perfect form is often unpredictable, although usually you just drop the terminal -i to find the perfect stem. Deponent and semi-deponent verbs only have 3 principal parts: The perfect form doesnt end in -i. Conor, -ari, -atus sum is a deponent verb. The third principal part is the perfect.Some verbs cant be made passive, and some verbs have the active future participle in place of the past participle for the fourth principal part. Sources and Further Reading Moreland, Floyd L., and Fleischer, Rita M. Latin: An Intensive Course. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.Traupman, John C. The Bantam New College Latin English Dictionary. Third Edition. New York: Bantam Dell, 2007.